What is affirmation of life?
ANS: Affirmation of life simply means traditional African religion. Before the coming of Christianity or Islam the indigenous African knew of the existence of God. He Akans called Him ‘Nyame’ the Ewes called Him ‘Mawu’. All indigenous African knew of God as the Supreme God lives in the third heaven and is noi represented in
any likeness on earth.
b. Write any four (4) attributes of God and explain them.
God is good
God is comforter
ill. God is a giver of life
iv. God never sleeps
God blesses us.
c) How does the traditional African See Work?
ANS: In traditional African, deep down in our villages where the people have not been çorrupted by western or European standards, work is regarded as an integral part of life. It is neither defined by time into periods of work, nor is not divorced from everyday life and categorized as ‘job’. Work takes places everywhere (inside and outside the home) and any time during working hours. Whether hunting, fishing, herding, gathering or farming, one is engaged in work. Teaching, counseling, judicial hearing, governance, trading, healing are all work. The preparations of festivities and rituals are also work. Work like the affirmation of life in ever present and everywhere in the community.
You must take note of other essential characteristics of work for the traditional African. It is its communal nature. It is carried out with others and for the benefit if the whole community. Work implies sharing the labour and the resultant form it. Through work one comes to know the meaning of caring since it presents community members with opportunities for learning, understanding and practicing generosity. A real example is in traditional Akan society there is a system called ‘NNOBOA* This underscores the communal nature of work. During the farming season, a farmer who wants to clear the land would call others to help. He provides food and drinks. This goes on rotational basis until all the farmers have cleared their plots. The same thing is repeated during planting and harvesting of maize or other cereals.ALL LEVEL 100 EXAMS SESSION 2022
a) What is education according to Burns and Bruner’s definition?
ANS: To Burns and Bruner education refers to the process of deliberately transmitting the arts and science and fostering contributions to them.
b) State and explain the forms of education.
ANS:1 Formal education
2 Informal education
3. Non- formal
1 Formal education
Schools are involved in formal education. In such a school, there is professional
leacher: there are definite structures as to the times of meeting.
2. Informal Education
The second form of education in informal education. Some people call this home
education. It is that type of education given us by our parents at home. It has no structure in terms of time. It takes place at any time of the day. There is no professional teacher. The parents, the elder brothers and the whole extended family are the teachers.
It is a system where people who have had informal education are brought up under formal conditions to update their knowledge and skills. It is a kind of in – service education. For example traditional birth attendants can have a non- formal training session to learn a few things to improve their skills.
c) Identify the main functions of education in the society and explain any one them
ANS: the main functions of education are;
2. Economic function
3. Political function of education
4. Education as an agent of change.
This is the function through which education tries to make the young children acquire culture, language and the norms of the society. An example of norms is that in Akan society a child cannot point to something to an adult with the left hand.
il. Economic Function of Education
Do you know that even parents who are regarded as very poor try to mobilize the resources they have to send their children to school? Do you also know that pod countries, like ours devote a large chunk of the national budget each year to education? Why do individual families and countries do this? Families believe with good education their children will obtain good jobs with good salaries. believe that they will be able to get competent workers from educated citizenry constitute the economic function of education.
ili. Political Function of Education
Education should enable you to know your rights and responsibilities as a citizen to understand political issues, what the various political parties stand for. These are some of the political functions of education. Do you know that in the General Election, a large number of ballot papers were destroyed? Yes. This because quite a large segment of the population lacked political education
iv. Education as an agent of change
One important function of education is to bring about change in the society. will get to know later there is sometimes a conflict between formal education ; informal education because of this function education is supposed to perform education emphasize the change function or the conservatives function? You will
discuss this fully when you come to look at the importance of education for national development in section 3 of this unit.
What is the definition of philosophy?
Philosophy is in systematic way of analyzing issues to discover the underlying assumptions and beliefs. In this way, philosophy is always present whatever through thought grow conscious of their existence
Ezensu (2001) defines philosophy as a process an activity undertaken by the
individual to find the basis of his benefits or assumptions.
- b. Explain the nature of philosophy.
Philosophy can be used to locate issues in dispute and help to clarify them. In short philosophy consists of concepts and ideas in an attempt to cut through slogans to genuine issues and problems.
Philosophy can be usefully employed it the quest for wisdom
- Philosophy helps us to understand the nature and history of our civilization
- Philosophical ideas have a direct relevance to present – day religious, social and
c. State three (3) uses of philosophy.
- Philosophy can be used to locate issues in dispute and help to clarify them. In short philosophy consists of concepts and ideas in an attempt to cut through slogans to genuine issues and problems
- Philosophy can be usefully employed it the quest for wisdom
- Philosophy helps us to understand the nature and history of our civilization
- Philosophical ideas have a direct relevance to present – day religious, social and political movements.
a. Justify the roots of pragmatism.
ANS: Pragmatism is essentially an American Philosophical movement that came into Prominence during the last one hundred (100) years. The philosophers include; Charles Sanden Pierce (1839- 1914), William James (1842 – 1910) John Dewey (1859 – 1952)
As a movement, pragmatism was founded for the purpose of bridging the gap between two opposing tendencies: Idealist traditions in Europe on one hand and the sterile philosophical traditions of American Colleges. The pragmatists felt their method and theory could be of great utility in solving intellectual problems and in pushing forward man’s progress. Dewey’s contribution to pragmatist movement was most
central. Pragmatism is variously referred to as Empiricism, Experimentalism and instrumentalism.
b) What is the purpose of pragmatism?
ANS: The pragmatist believes that values are not extremely fixed qualities in some objects nor do they have divine origin. Values are thought to be man or social centered. To the pragmatist, something is valuable if it meets the interests, needs and aspiration of man or society. Nevertheless, values come form reflective deliberations This means we must use our intelligence to determine what is desirable taking into account the overall consequences.
This means each generation can make new values and get solutions to deals with ne» problems. Dewey an exponent of pragmatism finds ‘growth “to be the basis of all ethics and thinks whatever contributes to growth is good. The pragmatist’s Views about beauty (art) is simply what we find beautiful in our own experience, what has the power to move us and to make us feel deeply about something,
c) List the two (2) major points that form the basic of the concept of pragmatic metaphysics.
- Pragmatists reject the distinction between the mind and matter as two spate
independent substances. They believe that mind and matter are not separate and
independent substances. They argue that people known about matter only as these
experience it and reflect upon that experience with their minds
Discuss the idealist position on the following:
To the idealist, the nature of the universe is the mind. It is an idea that the university has two components. The sensory aspect which is the part of life opens to epidemic sensory exploration that can be verified. They call it the world of illusion. The other component is the real world, which lies beyond the sensory world and only be reached through the mind, hence they call it the world of ideas. Thus, the world of the mind focuses on ideas. The idealist thinks world of ideas is real and permanent but those things we see, feel and experience are really illusory and temporary or just a reflection. Plato makes this clear in his ‘allegory of the cave sum, by the allegory, Plato is suggesting that majority of mankind lives in the world of senses, the cave, For Plato; our senses are not the ultimate of reality but only world shadows and images of the ‘real’ world. The genuine real world is the wo
pure ideas which is beyond the world of senses. We come into contact with the ultimate real world through the intellect (mind).
The idealist asserts that ideas come before material objects. For example, construction of a simple things such as table. The “idea’ of a table must exist in somebody’s before he can construct it. Hence the metaphysics of idealism can simply be define as the world of mind.
The idealist also believes that the mind and the body are made of different matters are separate things.
The idealist’s position on knowledge and truth is that there is an ideal or university truth which man can find. They think that the truth exist and is independent of master knowledge of it. They assert that to know something of the real world, we do not have to use Our senses but rather to depend only on the use of our mind (intellect)
To the idealist, knowing the universal truth is simply a sort of remembering the forms already in the man in the form of ideas. The idealist takes a rationalist app to the problems of knowledge and truth and depends largely on deductive logic the use of deductive logic, idealist also tries to find in the universe the general principles that can be called universal truths. Their pre – occupations to develop system of truth that has internal and logical consistency. They assert that when something is true, it is in harmony with the nature of the universe. Things that don’t fit into the ideal structure of the universe are false and must be rejected. To the idealist truth inherits in the very nature of the universe. Truth is largely independent of experience. Hence ultimate knowledge is not gained by empirical means but basically various methods such as intuition, revelation and rationalization
ANS: Axiology deals with values. The idealist believes that good life is living in harmony with the universe. They believe that absolute or ideals or God is the person or ethical of all things and thus ethical Behaviour and morality lie in the imitation absolute self. They think that man’s conduct is most moral if it is accordance Wi ideal and universe Moral law which we can do recognize. Society ensures this by appointing teachers and Ministers of religion to instruct clarify and inform us as how to behave in accordance with the Universal Moral The idealists conceive of aesthetic or beauty as the approximation of the ideal. They believe that a beautiful thing in form reflects the logic and order of the universe of nature. The idealist sees painting as a work of enjoyment ranging form “imitation of nature” to the most abstract. Most of them think Music is the highest form of aesthete
Creation since it does not represent anything in the existing world, but instead cut across to the heart of the Absolute.
Discuss two (2) major improvements in education at the basic and introduced by the educational reform review committee of 2001.
ANS: The current structure of basic education which comprises primary and J.S.S. has been found to be inadequate to equip young people in Ghana with basic reading, writing and numeracy skills that these young people need for further training at the secondary level. This level of education also does equip young people with the practical skills for the world of work as promised in the previous reforms. Government decided to carry out a radical reform of the whole educational system including the basic level. Government has decided to introduce a new universal and continuous basic education programme for all children for age 4 to 15. This decision
will create a universal compulsory basic education system comprising:
2 yeas of kindergarten
6 years of primary and
The first 3 years of high school (Junior High School)
Government recognizes the crucial role that pre- school education plays in the formative years of the child. Government has decided that kindergarten education should become part of universal free compulsory basic education structure Government will provide resources to support the expansion of kindergarten facilities
by District Assemblies, Non-Governmental Organization (NGOs), Churches and communities among others.
It has been proposed that fewer subjects will be taught at the primary level. This will enable each pupil’s grounding in the basic skills required for entry into Junior High to be improved. Emphasis at this stage should be on literacy, numeracy and problem solving skills. Creative arts comprising arts and crafts, music and dance, physical education and I.C.T. should be taught as practical and creative activities.
ill. Junior High School
Junior high school education is to last three years. It would be able to properly equip students to move into diversified system of Senior High Schools which comprises options in vocational, technical, agricultural and general education. To enable students form this level to have access to various Senior High School options, they
will have to sit for externally supervised examinations in the core subjects of English, Mathematics, Science, Social Studies and Ghanaian Language. Students will be assisted to follow professionally – run programmes of assessment am guidance and counseling to cable them select courses based on their interests aptitudes and ability, whether these are in general, and technical, vocational or agricultural streams of Senior High School.
Explain the following terms:
ANS: To Burns and Bruner education refers to the process of deliberately transmit arts and science and fostering contributing to them. -Demey says education process of re- arranging the environment for the learner to acquire knowledge himself.
ANS: Philosophy is a systematic way of analyzing issues lo discover the understanding assumptions and beliefs. In this way, philosophy is always present whatever through thought grow conscious of their existence.
Ezensu (2001) defines philosophy as a process an activity undertaken individual to find the basis of his benefits or assumptions.
b) Clearly explain how education performs the following functions in society:
i. Economic function
ANS: Do you know that even parents who are regarded as very poor try to mobilize few resources they have to send their children to school? Do you also know that countries, like ours devote a large chunk of the national budget each year to education? Why do individual families and countries do this? Families believe with good education their children will obtain good jobs with good salaries. Countries believe that they will be able to get competent workers from educated citizen constitute the economic function of education.
i. Political Function
ANS: Education should enable you to know your rights and responsibilities as a and to understand political issues, what the various political parties stand for, example. These are some of the political functions of education. Do you know the 2004 General Election, a large number of ballot papers were destroyed? Yours
is because quite a large segment of the population lacked political education
in). Agent of change function
ANS: Formal education Schools are involved in formal education. In such a school, there is profession
teacher: these are a definite structure as to the times of meeting.
The second form of education in informal education. Some people call this has education. It is that type of education given us by our parents at home. it has structure in terms of time. It makes place at any time of the day. There is no professional teacher. The parents, the elder brothers and the whole extended are the leachers.
It is a system where people who have had informal education are brought you formal conditions to update their knowledge and skills. It is a kind of in – service education. For example traditional birth attendants can have a non- formal training session to learn a few things to improve their skills. So you see we have three of education.
3) What is the Curriculum?
ANS: Curriculum is every complete scheme of education which comprises certain courses and activities that help achieve the educational aims.
b) How does a society’s philosophy influence curriculum formulation and implementation
A.NS: The philosophy held by the society determines the educationalists. The education aims determine the curriculum of the school system. This is because the society’s philosophy determines what should be taught in the schools. That is the curriculum just as an individual’s life is influenced by the philosophy he holds. Curriculum is designed in terms of the philosophy of the society.
A) Explain any five principles underlying the Accelerated Development plan of 1961
- A six-year basic primary course for all children at public expense; primary school re to be abolished as from January I*, 1952.
- Infant-junior schools were to be known as primary schools. Senior primary schools were to be known as middle schools, and were to be regarded as part of the post primary system.
- Facilities for the training of teachers were to be increased by the addition of ten new colleges and the expansion of the six existing ones.
- Additional day secondary schools were to be provided and certain non-assisted secondary school were to be assisted.
- Four secondary-technical schools were provided, and the conversion of the Government Technical School Takoradi was to be converted to secondary-technical Technical institutes were to be established at Tarkwa, Accra, Kumasi and Secondi-Takoradi.
- All teachers in training, except those possessing a school certificate, were to lake the certificate B course. Entry to certificate A course was to be made from among certificate B teachers who had taught for a period.
- The number of middle schools in the Northern Territories was to be increased as quickly as possible, and more teachers were to be provided. A new training college was to be opened at Pusiga. The number of primary schools in the North was to be increased as teachers became available.
- The salaries of teachers, trained and untrained, were to be review. It was proposed that in future all teachers in training would be treated as if they were on study leave, and would draw the salaries they would have received if they had been teaching in a school.
- Considerable increases in scholarships to secondary, technical and trade schools were
- b) Explain the reasons for establishing the Ghana Education Trust.
The Accelerated Development plan of 1951 resulted in the provision of half a million primary school place. This meant that the number of potential secondary school entrants would increase. The Government of Ghana needed to be self- sufficient in the b provision of secondary school graduates and about 4 percent of each generation should enter secondary schools. As a result of this plan, the government decided increase the annual intake into secondary schools from about 2,500 m 1958 to about 6,000 in 1964. The main instrument by which this was to be done was Ghana Education Trust (GET).
The Ghana Education Trust was founded by the Prime Minister shortly after independence. However, its roots was traced back to 1948 when with a partly sum of
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